Connecting to a remote Gateway server#

To leverage the benefits of most provisioners provided by Gateway Provisioners, it’s helpful to redirect a Jupyter server’s kernel management to a Gateway server. This allows better separation of the user’s notebooks from the managed compute cluster (Kubernetes, Hadoop YARN, Docker Swarm, etc.) on which the Gateway server resides. A Jupyter server can be configured to relay kernel requests to a Gateway server in several ways.


The following assumes a Gateway server has been configured and deployed. Please consult the Operators Guide to deploy and configure Gateway Provisioners within a Gateway server.


Enterprise Gateway will not be compatible with Gateway Provisioners until its 4.0 release. As a result the following assumes the targeted Gateway server is a Jupyter Kernel Gateway deployment. While attempts to connect to a deployment of Enterprise Gateway 3.x, the kernels provided by that deployment will be based on EG’s process-proxies and not kernel provisioners. Nevertheless, these instructions are the same since the GatewayClient support in Jupyter Server is backward compatible.

Connecting via JupyterLab#

Connecting to a Gateway server from JupyterLab (or Notebook) is fairly straightforward due to a rich set of configuration capabilities and the fact that this capability has been supported for some time.

Command line#

To instruct the server to connect to a Gateway instance running on host <GATEWAY_HOST_IP> on port <GATEWAY_PORT>, the following command line options can be used:

jupyter lab --gateway-url=http://<GATEWAY_HOST_IP>:<GATEWAY_PORT> --GatewayClient.http_user=guest --GatewayClient.http_pwd=guest-password

Configuration file#

If command line options are not appropriate for your environment, the Jupyter server configuration file can be used to express Gateway server options. Note however, that command line options always override configuration file options.

In your file add the following for the equivalent options:

c.GatewayClient.url = "http://<GATEWAY_HOST_IP>:<GATEWAY_PORT>"
c.GatewayClient.http_user = "guest"
c.GatewayClient.http_pwd = "guest-password"

Docker image#

All GatewayClient options have corresponding environment variable support, so if your Jupyter Lab or Notebook installation is already in a docker image, a corresponding docker invocation would look something like this:

docker run -t --rm \
  -e JUPYTER_GATEWAY_HTTP_PWD=guest-password \
  -p 8888:8888 \
  -v ${HOME}/notebooks/:/tmp/notebooks \
  -w /tmp/notebooks \

Notebook files residing in ${HOME}/notebooks can then be accessed via http://localhost:8888.

Connecting via Papermill#

Connecting to a Gateway server from Papermill is not nearly as common because Papermill is typically used local to where the kernel will run.

Creating a Papermill Engine#

Connecting Papermill to a Gateway actually leverages the same KernelManager that is used when JupyterLab connects to a Gateway server. However, to set the class of a KernelManager to jupyter_server.gateway.managers.GatewayKernelManager one must implement, and register (via entrypoints), a “Papermill engine”.

Once the engine is implemented and set to use the GatewayKernelManager class, Papermill can be invoked using:

papermill --engine MyPapermillEngine NotebookToExecute.ipynb OutputNotebook.ipynb

An example of a Papermill engine that supports connecting to a remote Gateway server can be found in the Elyra project.

Connection Timeouts#

Sometimes, depending on the kind of cluster the Gateway server is servicing, connection establishment and kernel startup can take a while (sometimes upwards of minutes). This is particularly true for managed clusters that perform scheduling like Hadoop YARN or Kubernetes. In these configurations it is important to configure both the connection and request timeout values.

The options GatewayClient.connect_timeout (env: JUPYTER_GATEWAY_CONNECT_TIMEOUT) and GatewayClient.request_timeout (env: JUPYTER_GATEWAY_REQUEST_TIMEOUT) default to 40 seconds, but can be configured as necessary.

The KERNEL_LAUNCH_TIMEOUT environment variable will be set from these values or vice versa (whichever is greater). This value is used by Gateway Provisioners to determine when it should give up on waiting for the kernel’s startup to complete, while the other timeouts are used by Lab or Notebook when establishing the connection to the Gateway server.